Diagnosing Internal Derangement – A Multifaceted Approach
Internal derangements of the lower knee (IDSK) is an acute condition of the lower knee with focal damage to the meniscus, usually because of a tear, break or partial cruciate ligament or tearing of one or more of the ligaments supporting the lower knee. This condition is usually acquired from sports-related activities like basketball, soccer, volleyball, football, hockey, and track and field. This kind of damage to the structures within the knee leads to inflammation, which causes pain, instability and abnormal movement of that particular knee. The worse the condition gets, the longer it will take to heal and recover fully.
Many people are not aware of their conditions, which is why they seek treatment for this particular clinical problem when it arises. However, it is important to understand what internal derangement is, how it can occur, and the consequences of it if not treated appropriately. Because the definition of this condition varies from medical conditions to medical conditions, it is highly recommended that you consult a physician or medical practitioner for diagnosis, management and treatment.
One of the most common causes of internal derangement is meniscus trauma. This injury refers to damage to the meniscus by direct contact or by sliding against the surface upon which it lands. Menisci are located between the heel bone and the shinbone, and they help maintain the proper and equal pressure of the body’s weight against the bones. When meniscus trauma occurs, the tissue surrounding the bone becomes inflamed and irritated. This results in an increase in the metabolic rate of that area, which can cause an increase in the production of fluid that collects under the meniscus (which is called a hematoma). Over time, this can lead to the development of a meniscus tear, or even total detachment of both the bone and the tendon from the shinbone.
Another possible source of internal derangement is patella subluxation. The patella, which is a quadriceps tendon located between the heel bone and the toes, can also become inflamed and irritated, resulting in an increased metabolic rate and fluid collection under the patella. If the patella subluxation is severe, it can result in a rupture of this muscle, requiring surgical intervention. Although patella subluxation is a more common cause of this type of meniscal injury, it is not the only one. Research has shown that an imbalance of strength between the quadriceps and hamstrings can also result in an injury to this area.
For patients with this condition, an annual examination is important for both diagnosis and management. Physicians examining patients with this type of Meniean disorder are most concerned with internal derangement and the potential for infective endometrial hyperplasia (PEX) due to pelvic inflammatory disease. Physicians also consider the risk for transfer of genital herpes and gonorrhea. If necessary, patients are also advised to seek pre-surgical imaging studies to determine their suitability for specific clinical applications. This includes documentation of previous infections and treatment protocols, as well as PEX findings in the pelvic area.
In the past, the diagnostic procedures most often used for internal derangement were x-rays, MRI and CT scans. However, in the last decade, more accurate tests have become available. Currently, the International Joint Committee on Diagnostic Pathology (IJDCPD) recommends the use of computed tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans for this purpose. Although MRI may provide images of bone structure and other soft tissue regions, a CT scan can provide detailed images of organs, blood vessels and muscles. Both these types of imaging methods are very effective in assessing the status of internal derangement, particularly when performed early in the course of illness.